When you come to Paris, you should talk about Louvre. As a royal palace that carries 800 years of French history and lived under 50 French kings and queens, Louvre itself is an ultra-luxurious work of art, not to mention that palace has a collection of 400,000 exhibits covering everything parts of world and different periods. , Artistic treasures including sculptures, paintings, etc. Of course, as in British Museum, many of treasures inside were French trophies at time.
Completed in 1204, Louvre was built by Philip II, seventh monarch of Capet dynasty, but at that time it was not a palace, but a castle guarding palace. Philip II was first powerful monarch of Capet dynasty, he not only built castles and walls in Paris, but also tripled territory of France at that time during his reign.
Another remarkable feature of Philip II is that he approved establishment of a university in Paris. Since then, oldest university in world has been born in Paris, France. Although theology was subject of study at time, there were no institutions of higher education in European countries other than Italy at that time, so large numbers of scholars came to France (especially from United Kingdom) and disciplines gradually spread to humanities. social sciences, etc., all founders of famous University of Oxford in UK studied at University of Paris. If kings of two countries had not turned over boat of friendship, and British scientists had not been driven away by king of France, Oxford might not have existed.
During reign of Charles V, third French king of Valois dynasty, who reversed first phase of Hundred Years' War between Britain and France, city of Paris began to expand beyond defensive walls, so that a second city wall had to be built to protect new city .Expanded urban area, so that Louvre, located within walls of Paris, lost its role as a defensive fortress. As a result, Louvre was modernized to become a comfortable royal residence.
Then, as successive royal nobles strove for extravagant style, Louvre was constantly added with magnificent towers, exquisite sculptures and unique halls. In middle of 16th century, Francis I even demolished it and rebuilt it into a Renaissance palace. Francis I, who liked Renaissance style, also collected a large number of paintings by Italian artists of time, including Louvre's treasure, Mona Lisa.
Today Louvre as a museum has three entrances for tourists: 1. Positive glass pyramid on ground; Enter and go down, or you can go down from entrances on both sides of small Arc de Triomphe); 3. Richelieu gate (in building facing left side of pyramid). There is also Lion's Gate, which is entrance for staff and is usually closed to individual visitors.
Seeing one upright and one inverted glass pyramid designed by Chinese architect I.M. Pei, I can't help but remind little lady of Da Vinci Code unlocked at pyramid.
When IM Pei designed this glass pyramid, French strongly opposed him. It seems that any new building will be opposed by local population at beginning of design, especially France. But in end, it became symbol of Louvre, just as much-talked about Eiffel Tower became absolute symbol of Paris. You may not be familiar with I.M. Pei, but when it comes to his uncle's family business, you should know that this is one of Suzhou's four famous gardens - Lion Grove.
Because we didn't buy a ticket online in advance, we could only obediently line up. We waited half an hour which is considered fast. It is said that an hour or two during peak season is norm.
Although Louvre is divided into only three pavilions: Denon, Sully and Richelieu, these three pavilions represent Louvre only in shape of a U. Buildings on three sides of floating palace. In other words, pavilion actually covers ground floor, as well as first and second floors above ground. There are more than 400 exhibition halls in these three large exhibition halls, that is, in three main buildings connected, if these exhibition halls are connected, it will be 16 kilometers. So, although there are far fewer goods here than 8 million exhibits in British Museum, it would take more than two years to see them all, not to eat or drink during day, but to look at each exhibit for three minutes. So young lady also planned route according to her interests. Of course, one cannot ignore three treasures of Louvre.
Even if there is a Chinese guide, Louvre is still like a labyrinth. The signs of each exhibition hall are very fuzzy. There are as many people as a vegetable market, and there is no explanation in Chinese in official audio guide. These are far from exhibits. Well done British Museum, what Also entrance is free. But in any case, Louvre is worth a visit.
After security checks, make your way all way to U-shaped floor of Louvre, basement of Sully Pavilion, where part of ruins of Louvre is preserved as a medieval castle. Turn right and go upstairs to Egyptian Exhibition Hall, which houses a large number of Egyptian treasures looted by Napoleon during his expedition to Egypt in 1798, such as Sphinx, a statue of a pharaoh and mummies.
Because little lady had seen too many ancient Egyptian cultural relics in British Museum and Egypt, she hurriedly skipped it and headed straight for Greek exhibition hall. Although I have also been to Greece, and there are more ancient Greek statues in British Museum than here, most famous "Venus with a Broken Arm" in world is here and is one of three treasures of Louvre.
The "Sleeping Hermaphrodite" looks like a soft and beautiful female statue, but in fact, if you go around it from other side, you will find that it has both a female breast, a lower body, and male genitals. Hermaphrodite (Hermaphrodite) - god of yin and yang in ancient Greek mythology, illegitimate son of Hermes and Aphrodite (corresponding to Venus in ancient Roman mythology), half-brother of Cupid. Since handsome youth had abandoned mad pursuit of water nymph Salamakis, water nymph asked Zeus, father of gods, to unite their bodies into one. Zeus accepted Narcissus' request, and from then on Hermaphrodite became a hermaphrodite.
Myths belong to myths, but technique of looking at this statue is really great. Hermaphrodite's skin is soft and smooth, especially curve of back, which has a standard S-shape. The mattress under it looks like soft and elastic, not at all hard marble. This is work of Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, one of greatest Italian sculptors of 17th century.
"Old Centaur teased by Eros" (Old Centaur teasing Eros), discovered in Italy in 17th century. This is a Roman copy of a Greek sculpture from 2nd century BC. Centaurs are docile animals in ancient Greek mythology, and Eros is god of love in ancient Greek mythology, corresponding to Cupid in ancient Roman mythology.
Venus de Milo, one of three treasures of Louvre, commonly known as "Venus with Broken Arm". There are always crowds of people in front of statue, and it is not easy to take a picture without people. In fact, she should be called "Aphrodite de Mélos" because she was discovered on island of Milos in Greece in 1820. As we said earlier, Venus in Ancient Rome corresponds. It was Aphrodite.
At that time, a farmer dug it out of cultivated land on island, which caused greed of France and Turkey. After some fights and political contests, statue went to French, but unfortunately fight broke goddess of weapons, but some people say they disappeared as soon as they were excavated. Experts have reconstructed appearance of this Venus with her right arm lowered to support her crotch, her left arm raised above her head, and apple in her hand, which was golden apple that triggered Trojan War. Initially, he not only had weapons, but also wore jewelry and painted with paints. Perhaps this Venus without arms and golden apples would be more peaceful, and she really became most popular goddess in human world.
La Pallas de Velletri, also known as Helmeted Athena. Named same as Venus de Milo because it was discovered at Velletri in central Italy, Athena's full name: Pallas Athena (Pallas Athena). However, this goddess of victory is completely female, which is very different from many statues of Athena, strong but feminine.
The ancient Greek goddess of harvest Demeter is also one of twelve main gods of ancient Greek mythology. All four seasons in ancient Greek mythology are also associated with it. Due to fact that Hades, king of underworld, robbed her and Zeus' daughter Persephone, goddess of harvest was very sad and left Olympus to frantically search for her daughter, so that everything on earth stopped growing.
Seeing this situation, Zeus discussed with Pluto whether he could return his daughter Demeter. So Hades gave Persephone four pomegranate seeds, forcing her to return to underworld for four months each year. Since then, when she was with her mother, Goddess of Harvest, it was beginning of spring in world, when grain sprouted and everything grew, and when she returned to underworld, winter came, when everything withered and withered. up.
After finishing Greek exhibition hall, go upstairs and in middle of two wide stairs is second treasure of Louvre, "Victory of Samothrace". Just like previous statue was named, it was discovered on island of Samothrace in Greece in 1863. God knows whether it is war, or an earthquake, or both. When they found her, she was smashed to pieces. Now her chest and right wing are all compared and restored using modern computer technology.
Some say it was created by Demetrius I, ruler of Asia Minor, in 200 BC. e. in memory of fleet that defeated kingdom of Ptolemies in a naval battle. This is a tribute to gods after winning a naval battle. No matter how it is said, she first stood on a rock by Sea of Samothrace, facing endless sea and guarding ships in sea. Although head and hands of this Athena cannot be reproduced, judging by graceful figure and light clothes, this is image of perfect goddess in hearts of people, completely different from previous "Athena in helmet."
Because there are so many treasures in Louvre, I will divide them into two articles. In next article, we'll go look at famous paintings in Denon Museum, which actually includes Louvre's first Mysterious Smile Sambo Mona Lisa.
I don't want to join a group! I don't want to travel poor either! How to get best travel experience at lowest cost? For more comfortable and complete self-guided tours and auto tours, pay attention to "gluttonous young lady" who walks between prudence and reason.